An experimental study was initiated in 2001 to determine the effects of ungulate browsing and water availability on willow growth. Four treatments including control, artificial beaver dam to raise local water tables, exclosure to eliminate herbivory, and both dam and exclosure were monitored for the last 15 years.

East Blacktail 1 Experimental Site
East Blacktail 2 Experimental Site
Elk Creek Experimental Site
West Blacktail Experimental Site